Battles

Shiloh
1862 – April TN Other Names: Pittsburg LandingLocation: Hardin County

Campaign: Federal Penetration up the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers (1862)

Date(s): April 6-7, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee and Army of the Ohio (65,085) [US]; Army of the Mississippi (44,968) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 23,746 total (US 13,047; CS 10,699)

Description: As a result of the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson, Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, the commander in the area, was forced to fall back, giving up Kentucky and much of West and Middle Tennessee. He chose Corinth, Mississippi, a major transportation center, as the staging area for an offensive against Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee before the Army of the Ohio, under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, could join it. The Confederate retrenchment was a surprise, although a pleasant one, to the Union forces, and it took Grant, with about 40,000 men, some time to mount a southern offensive, along the Tennessee River, toward Pittsburg Landing. Grant received orders to await Buell`s Army of the Ohio at Pittsburg Landing. Grant did not choose to fortify his position; rather, he set about drilling his men many of which were raw recruits. Johnston originally planned to attack Grant on April 4, but delays postponed it until the 6th. Attacking the Union troops on the morning of the 6th, the Confederates surprised them, routing many. Some Federals made determined stands and by afternoon, they had established a battle line at the sunken road, known as the ‘Hornets Nest’. Repeated Rebel attacks failed to carry the Hornets Nest, but massed artillery helped to turn the tide as Confederates surrounded the Union troops and captured, killed, or wounded most. Johnston had been mortally wounded earlier and his second in command, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, took over. The Union troops established another line covering Pittsburg Landing, anchored with artillery and augmented by Buell?s men who began to arrive and take up positions. Fighting continued until after dark, but the Federals held. By the next morning, the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard?s army of less than 30,000. Beauregard was unaware of the arrival of Buell?s army and launched a counterattack in response to a two-mile advance by William Nelson`s division of Buell`s army at 6:00 am, which was, at first, successful. Union troops stiffened and began forcing the Confederates back. Beauregard ordered a counterattack, which stopped the Union advance but did not break its battle line. At this point, Beauregard realized that he could not win and, having suffered too many casualties, he retired from the field and headed back to Corinth. On the 8th, Grant sent Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, with two brigades, and Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, with his division, in pursuit of Beauregard. They ran into the Rebel rearguard, commanded by Col. Nathan Bedford Forrest, at Fallen Timbers. Forrest`s aggressive tactics, although eventually contained, influenced the Union troops to return to Pittsburg Landing. Grant`s mastery of the Confederate forces continued; he had beaten them once again. The Confederates continued to fall back until launching their mid-August offensive.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Vicksburg
1862 – Summer MS Other Names: NoneLocation: Warren County

Campaign: Grant?s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 18-July 4, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Army of Vicksburg [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 19,233 total (US 10,142; CS 9,091)

Description: In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant`s armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. This was the culmination of one of the most brilliant military campaigns of the war. With the loss of Pemberton`s army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half. Grant’s successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Baton Rouge
1862 – Summer LA Other Names: Magnolia CemeteryLocation: East Baton Rouge Parish

Campaign: Operations against Baton Rouge (1862)

Date(s): August 5, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: 2nd Brigade, Department of the Gulf [US]; Breckinridge?s Corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 849 total (US 371; CS 478)

Description: In an attempt to regain control of the state, Confederates wished to recapture the capital at Baton Rouge. Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge planned a combined land/water expedition with his corps and CSS Ram Arkansas. Advancing west from Camp Moore, the Confederate land forces, coming from the east, were only ten miles away on August 4. They reached the outskirts of the capital early in the morning, formed for an attack in two divisions, and began to drive back each Union unit they encountered. Then, Union gunboats in the river began shelling the Confederates. The Arkansas could have neutralized the Union gunboats, but her engines failed and she did not participate in the battle. Federal land forces, in the meantime, fell back to a more defensible line, and the Union commander, Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams, was killed soon after. The new commander, Col. Thomas W. Cahill, ordered a retreat to a prepared defensive line nearer the river and within the gunboats` protection. Rebels assailed the new line, but finally the Federals forced them to retire. The next day the Arkansas`s engines failed again as she closed on the Union gunboats; she was blown up and scuttled by her crew. The Confederates failed to recapture the state capital.

Result(s):

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Murfreesboro
1862 – Winter TN Other Names: NoneLocation: Rutherford County

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): July 13, 1862

Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from four Union units (approx. 900) [US]; equivalent of a brigade (about five cavalry units; approx. 1,400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,040 total (US 890; CS 150)

Description: On June 10, 1862, Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell commanding the Army of the Ohio, started a leisurely advance toward Chattanooga, which Union Brig. Gen. James Negley and his force threatened on June 7-8. In response to the threat, the Confederate government sent Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest to Chattanooga to organize a cavalry brigade. By July, Confederate cavalry under the command of Forrest and Col. John Hunt Morgan were raiding into Middle Tennessee and Kentucky. Perhap, the most dramatic of these cavalry raids was Forrest`s capture of the Union Murfreesboro garrison on July 13, 1862. Forrest left Chattanooga on July 9 with two cavalry regiments and joined other units on the way, bringing the total force to about 1,400 men. The major objective was to strike Murfreesboro, an important Union supply center on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, at dawn on July 13. The Murfreesboro garrison was camped in three locations around town and included detachments from four units comprising infantry, cavalry, and artillery, under the command of Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden who had just arrived on July 12. Between 4:15 and 4:30 am on the morning of July 13, Forrest`s cavalry surprised the Union pickets on the Woodbury Pike, east of Murfreesboro, and quickly overran a Federal hospital and the camp of the 9th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment detachment. Additional Rebel troops attacked the camps of the other Union commands and the jail and courthouse. By late afternoon all of the Union units had surrendered to Forrest`s force. The Confederates destroyed much of the Union supplies and tore up railroad track in the area, but the main result of the raid was the diversion of Union forces from a drive on Chattanooga. This raid, along with Morgan`s raid into Kentucky, made possible Bragg`s concentration of forces at Chattanooga and his early September invasion of Kentucky.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Jackson
1863 – Summer MS Other Names: NoneLocation: Hinds County and Jackson County

Campaign: Grant`s Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 14, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. John Gregg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee [US]; Jackson Garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,136 total (US 286; CS 850)

Description: On May 9, 1863, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston received a dispatch from the Confederate Secretary of War directing him to `proceed at once to Mississippi and take chief command of the forces in the field. As he arrived in Jackson on the 13th, from Middle Tennessee, he learned that two army corps from the Union Army of the Tennessee`the XV, under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, and the XVII, under Maj. Gen. James Birdseye McPherson` were advancing on Jackson, intending to cut the city and the railroads off from Vicksburg. Johnston consulted with the local commander, Brig. Gen. John Gregg, and learned that only about 6,000 troops were available to defend the town. Johnston ordered the evacuation of Jackson, but Gregg was to defend Jackson until the evacuation was completed. By 10:00 am, both Union army corps were near Jackson and had engaged the enemy. Rain, Confederate resistance, and poor defenses prevented heavy fighting until around 11:00 am, when Union forces attacked in numbers and slowly but surely pushed the enemy back. In mid-afternoon, Johnston informed Gregg that the evacuation was complete and that he should disengage and follow. Soon after, the Yankees entered Jackson and had a celebration, hosted by Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant who had been travelling with Sherman`s corps, in the Bowman House. They then burned part of the town and cut the railroad connections with Vicksburg. Johnston`s evacuation of Jackson was a tragedy because he could, by late on the 14th, have had 11,000 troops at his disposal and by the morning of the 15th, another 4,000. The fall of the former Mississippi state capital was a blow to Confederate morale.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Chickamauga
1863 – September GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Catoosa County and Walker County

Campaign: Chickamauga Campaign (1863)

Date(s): September 18-20, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg and Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: The Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 34,624 total (US 16,170; CS 18,454)

Description: After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three army corps comprising Rosecrans?`s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg?s army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis` Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans`s army, defeat them, and then move back into the city. On the 17th he headed north, intending to meet and beat the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg marched north on the 18th, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting began in earnest on the morning of the 19th, and Bragg`s men hammered but did not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg continued his assault on the Union line on the left, and in late morning, Rosecrans was informed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosencrans created one, and James Longstreet`s men promptly exploited it, driving one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over command and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas then led these men from the field leaving it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the surrounding heights.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Missionary Ridge
1863 – Fall TN Location: Hamilton County and City of ChattanoogaCampaign: Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign (1863)

Date(s): November 23-25, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,485 total (US 5,815; CS 6,670)

Description: From the last days of September through October 1863, Gen. Braxton Bragg`s army laid siege to the Union army under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans at Chattanooga, cutting off its supplies. On October 17, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant received command of the Western armies; he moved to reinforce Chattanooga and replaced Rosecrans with Maj. Gen. George Thomas. A new supply line was soon established. Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman arrived with his four divisions in mid-November, and the Federals began offensive operations. On November 23-24, Union forces struck out and captured Orchard Knob and Lookout Mountain. On November 25, Union soldiers assaulted and carried the seemingly impregnable Confederate position on Missionary Ridge. One of the Confederacy`s two major armies was routed. The Federals held Chattanooga, the `Gateway to the Lower South’, which became the supply and logistics base for Sherman`s 1864 Atlanta Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heratige Preservation Services

Mill Creek Gap
1864 – Spring GA No Information Available
Resaca
1864 – Spring GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Gordon County and Whitfield County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): May 13-15, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,547 total (US 2,747; CS 2,800)

Description: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston had withdrawn from Rocky Face Ridge to the hills around Resaca. On the 13th, the Union troops tested the Rebel lines to pinpoint their whereabouts. The next day full scale fighting occurred, and the Union troops were generally repulsed except on the Rebel right flank where Sherman did not fully exploit his advantage. On the 15th, the battle continued with no advantage to either side until Sherman sent a force across the Oostanula River, at Lay`s Ferry, towards Johnston`s railroad supply line. Unable to halt this Union movement, Johnston was forced to retire.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Kennesaw Line
1864 – Spring GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 27, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 4,000 total (US 3,000; CS 1,000)

Description: On the night of June 18-19, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, fearing envelopment, withdrew his army to a new, previously selected position astride Kennesaw Mountain. This entrenched arc-shaped line, to the north and west of Marietta, protected the Western & Atlantic Railroad, the supply link to Atlanta. Having defeated General John B. Hood troops at Kolb`s Farm on the 22nd, Sherman was sure that Johnston had stretched his line too thin and, therefore, decided on a frontal attack with some diversions on the flanks. On the morning of June 27, Sherman sent his troops forward after an artillery bombardment. At first, they made some headway overrunning Confederate pickets south of the Burnt Hickory Road, but attacking an enemy that was dug in was futile. The fighting ended by noon, and Sherman suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Pine Mountain
1864 – Spring GA Other Names: Marietta, Pine Hill, Pine Mountain, Gilgal Creek, Noonday Creek, Ruff?s MillLocation: Cobb County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): June 9-July 3, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: During the Atlanta Campaign, instead of frontally attacking Johnston`s army which would cause too many casualties, Sherman usually attempted to maneuver the enemy out of defensive positions. Thus, when Sherman first found Johnston entrenched in the Marietta area on June 9, he began extending his lines beyond the Confederate lines, causing some Rebel withdrawal to new positions. On June 18-19, Johnston withdrew to an arc-shaped position centered on Kennesaw Mountain. Sherman made some unsuccessful attacks on this position but eventually extended the line on his right and forced Johnston to withdrawal from the Marietta area on July 2-3.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Entrenchment Creek
1864 – Summer GA No Information Available
Peachtree Creek
1864 – Summer GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 20, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas [US]; Gen. John B. Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Cumberland [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,506 total (US 1,710; CS 4,796)

Description: Under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the Army of Tennessee had retired south of Peachtree Creek, an east to west flowing stream, about three miles north of Atlanta. Sherman split his army into three columns for the assault on Atlanta with George H. Thomas`s Army of the Cumberland moving from the north. Johnston had decided to attack Thomas, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis relieved him of command and appointed John B. Hood to take his place. Hood attacked Thomas after his army crossed Peachtree Creek. The determined assault threatened to overrun the Union troops at various locations. Ultimately, though, the Yankees held, and the Rebels fell back.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Atlanta
1864 – Summer GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Fulton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): July 22, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Gen. John Bell Hood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Military Division of the Mississippi [US]; Army of Tennessee [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 12,140 total (US 3,641; CS 8,499)

Description: Following the Battle of Peachtree Creek, Hood determined to attack Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson`s Army of the Tennessee. He withdrew his main army at night from Atlanta?`s outer line to the inner line, enticing Sherman to follow. In the meantime, he sent William J. Hardee with his corps on a fifteen-mile march to hit the unprotected Union left and rear, east of the city. Wheeler`s cavalry was to operate farther out on Sherman`s supply line, and Gen. Frank Cheatham`s corps were to attack the Union front. Hood, however, miscalculated the time necessary to make the march, and Hardee was unable to attack until afternoon. Although Hood had outmaneuvered Sherman for the time being, McPherson was concerned about his left flank and sent his reserves Grenville Dodge`s XVI Army Corps to that location. Two of Hood`s divisions ran into this reserve force and were repulsed. The Rebel attack stalled on the Union rear but began to roll up the left flank. Around the same time, a Confederate soldier shot and killed McPherson when he rode out to observe the fighting. Determined attacks continued, but the Union forces held. About 4:00 pm, Cheatham`s corps broke through the Union front at the Hurt House, but Sherman massed twenty artillery pieces on a knoll near his headquarters to shell these Confederates and halt their drive. Maj. Gen. John A. Logan` s XV Army Corps then led a counterattack that restored the Union line. The Union troops held, and Hood suffered high casualties.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Jonesboro
1864 – Fall GA Other Names: NoneLocation: Clayton County

Campaign: Atlanta Campaign (1864)

Date(s): August 31-September 1, 1864

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman [US]; Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Six corps [US]; two corps [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 3,149 total (US 1,149; CS 2,000)

Description: Sherman had successfully cut Hood`s supply lines in the past by sending out detachments, but the Confederates quickly repaired the damage. In late August, Sherman determined that if he could cut Hood`s supply lines (the Macon & Western and the Atlanta & West Point Railroads) the Rebels would have to evacuate Atlanta. Sherman, therefore, decided to move six of his seven infantry corps against the supply lines. The army began pulling out of its positions on August 25 to hit the Macon & Western Railroad between Rough and Ready and Jonesborough. To counter the move, Hood sent Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt and possibly rout the Union troops, not realizing Sherman`s army was there in force. On August 31, Hardee attacked two Union corps west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing an attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardee’s force that night. The next day, a Union corps broke through Hardee’ s troops which retreated to Lovejoy’s Station, and on the night of September 1, Hood evacuated Atlanta. Sherman did cut Hood’s supply line but failed to destroy Hardee’s command.

Result(s): Union victory

Source: Heritage Preservation Services

Stockbridge
1864 – Fall GA No Information Available
Sumpter
1865 – Spring SC No Information Available
Statesburg
1865 – Spring SC No Information Available
Camden
1865 – Spring SC No Information Available
Surender
1865 – Spring GA No Information Available